Her Life Stories
- Born in Troubled Times
- Born in Lhasa
- Childhood Memories
- The Best of the Best
- A Civil Servant
- Traveling to Tibet as Ordered
- A Long Journey with a Mission
- A Trip of Life and Death
- Meeting with the 13th Dalai Lama
- Investigation and Liaison
- Dangerous Yet Triumphant Return
- Devotion for National Salvation
- Publicity Campaign for Anti-Japanese War
- Endless Nostalgia
- Passing Away at an Early Age
Related Historical Literature
Timeline of Liu Manqing
Born in Lhasa, Tibet, in 1906.
Entered an old-style private Tibetan school in Lhasa to learn the Tibetan language in 1914.
Moved with her parents to Darjeeling, India, in 1915, and learned English and the Tibetan language at a local Christian school.
Returned to China with her parents in 1918 and lived in Peiping. Became a student at the Peiping Municipal No. 1 Primary School in the same year.
In 1921, Liu Manqing entered Tongzhou Women’s Normal School.
Married Xiao Jiamu in 1925,while she was studying at Tongzhou Women’s Normal School.They were later divorced.
Entered Zaiming Women’s Normal School in 1926, after graduating from Tongzhou Women’s Normal School. In the same year, she entered Peiping Duow Hospital to study nursing.
In 1928, she became a temporary staff member on the preparatory team for the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission of the National Government.
Worked as the Tibetan interpreter in the meeting between Lobsang Pasang and Chiang Kai-shek, in January 1929.
Appointed first-class clerk in the Civil Service of the National Government, on January 26, 1929.
In April 1929, Liu Manqing was appointed secretary of the custody unit of the secretariat of the preparatory group for the Grand Funeral of Sun Yat-sen.
On June 20, 1929, her application to conduct an investigation in Tibet was approved by Chiang Kai-shek.
In July 1929, she signed the “Document Submitted to the National Government Proposing the Prompt Dispatch of Personnel in Charge to Direct Government Affairs in Xikang in Light of the Dire Local Situation by Representatives of the Xikang People in Nanjing Including Liu Jiaju etc.”
On July 15, 1929, she accepted her appointment by the National Government as special envoy to enter Tibet for the first time.
On July 24, 1929, she visited her mother in Peiping.
Set off from Shanghai on August 1, 1929.
Arrived in Chongqing on August 17, 1929.
Left for Chengdu, Sichuan, on August 19, 1929.
Left Chengdu on September 1, 1929.
Arrived in Luding on September 5, 1929.
Arrived in Kangding on September 29, 1929.
Left Kangding on October 6, 1929.
Arrived in Litang on October 9, 1929.
Arrived in Batand on October 25, 1929.
Arrived in Qamdo, Tibet, on December 15, 1929.
Left Qamdo on January 16,1930.
Arrived in Lhasa on February 28, 1930.
On March 28, 1930, she had an audience with the 13th Dalai Lama.
On May 25, 1930, she had a second audience with the 13th Dalai Lama.
Left Lhasa on May 27, 1930.
Arrived in Calcutta, India, on June 24, 1930.
Returned to Shanghai on July 25, 1930.
Appointed as a clerk in the stationery office of the Civil Service of the National Government on July 28, 1930.
Returned to Nanjing on August 7, 1930.
In October 1930, she helped to found China’s Borderland Society.
On April 18, 1931, she was appointed as a member of staff in the reception office for representatives participating the National Conference.
In June 1931, the manuscript for A Mission to Xikang and Tibet was sent to Commercial Press for publication.
On June 3, 1931, she and Liu Manyun saw Kalsang Tsering and Yang Zhonghua off to Xikang to engage in the establishment of Xikang as a province.
On June 7, 1931, she and Huang Jingwan met with Huang Yanpei.
Talked with Liu Wangliming, Liu Liangmo, and Liu Manyun about family background on June 14, 1931.
On July 5, 1931, Chiang Kai-shek, Chairman of the National Government, awarded her a special certificate of merit.
Helped to initiate the founding of the Association of People from Xikang and Tibet in Nanjing for Anti-Japanese and National Salvation, in Nanjing, on October 7, 1931. Also delivered “A Letter to All Compatriots in China.”
On November 25, 1931, in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, she met with the monk Fan Cheng of Jinshan Temple to discussthe subsidization of further education for students in Xikang and Tibet.
Participated in the Fourth National Congress of Kuomintang on November 29, 1931.
On January 29, 1932, A Mission to Xikang and Tibet was printed. These copies were later destroyed in a Japanese bombing.
Attended the National Calamity Conference,hosted by the National Government in Luoyang on April 7, 1932.
Submitted the “Proposal on the Prompt Establishment of Xikang Provincial Government as a Preventative Measure” on April 10, 1932.
With the representative of the 9th Panchen Lama, jointly submitted the “Proposal on Improving Military, Administration, Religion and Education in Mongolian and Tibetan Region to Resist Foreign Invasion” in May 1932.
In May 1932, she went to Peiping and sold her possessions for 5,000 silver dollars, all of which she spent on the investigation in Xikang and Tibet.
In June 1932, she met with Hu Hanmin in Guangdong.
The Anti-Civil War Alliance of Shanghai was established on August 27, 1932, and Liu Manqing was elected as a member of the standing committee.
On September 7, 1932, the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission “restituted 2,000 silver dollars of travel expenses at the request of Liu Manqing in fax and please check for receipt.”
In January 1933, she was granted an audience with Chairman Lin Sen and President of the Executive Yuan, Wang Jingwei.
In November 1933, A Mission to Xikang and Tibet was reprinted.
In 1934, she compiled the first volume of her selected books for primary school students, called Tibet, which was published by Commercial Press.
On February 7, 1934, she became the person in charge of the communication group for the National Government’s Preparatory Office for the Memorial of Dalai.
In January 1935, her grandmother passed away and she visited Kangding to attend the funeral. On her way to Kangding, she met with Lin Pengxia.
In January 1937, Education in Border Areas was published by Commercial Press.
In August 1937, she gave a speech at the University of Shanghai on the Xikang and Tibetan people uniting to fight against Japan.
In October 1937, she saw a doctor in Shanghai.
In November 1937, she established and headed the Xikang and Tibetan People’s Publicity Group for the anti-Japanese war.
Submitted the “Petition for Equal Treatment as People Dispersed on the Occasion of Government Relocation to Chongqing to Show Fairness” on June 27, 1938.
Established and headed the Delegation of Xikang People to Express Solicitude to the Frontline Army on June 30, 1938.
The National Government’s Civil Service replied to her on August 20, 1938, and retroactively paid 300 yuan for her accommodation allowance in Xikang.
On September 17, 1938, together with Kalsang Tsering and others, she met with Zhou Fohai.
At the end of 1938, her mother died in Peiping.
On November 28, 1938, she was appointed leader of the Central Consolation Publicity Group and set off for Tibet for the third time.
Set off from Xiaguan, Yunnan, on December 8, 1938.
Arrived in Yangon, Myanmar, on December 18, 1938.
Arrived in Kalimpong, India, on January 2, 1939.
Arrived in Lhasa on February 2, 1939, leading the Central Consolation Publicity Group.
Met with the Tibetan Regent on February 14,1939, to appeal for resistance against Japan.
In February 1939, during the Monlam Prayer Festival in Lhasa, she briefed locals on the situation of the anti-Japanese war.
In March 1939, she met with Lungshar Dorje Tsegyal, former commander of the Tibetan army.
In May 1939, she played movies to local people in Lhasa, actively appealing for resistance against Japan.
Led the Central Consolation Publicity Group away from Lhasa on June 9, 1939, after four months of activities in Tibet.
Arrived in Qamdo, Tibet, on July 5, 1939.
Stayed at the foot of Mount Gongbu Bala, Tibet,on the night of July 6,1939.
Paid her last respects to Xiao Pinzhang (a group member who died) in Bare Village, Tibet, on July 23, 1939.
Reached the east bank of Jinsha River on September 16, 1939.
Arrived in Zhongdian, Yunnan, on September 25, 1939.
On September 18, 1939, she met with her father in Lijiang, Yunnan.
In 1939, Supplements to “A Mission to Xikang and Tibet” was officially published.
In 1939, the Japanese version of My Investigation Mission in Xikang and Tibet was published by KaizoSha Publishing House.
On January 11, 1940, she submitted a report to the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission on her publicity work in Tibet.
From February to March 20, 1940, “My Trip in Tibet” was serialized in Ta Kung Pao (Tianjin newspaper).
In March 1940, she met with Xiao Chongyi (the third brother of her ex-husband Xiao Jiamu) and others in Ba County, Chongqing.
On December 30, 1940, Xinhua Daily published an essay entitled “Recreation of Oriental Culture,”which was written jointly by Kalsang Tsering, Xia Sangdeng, and Liu Manqing.
Died of illness in Ba County (now Xiyong Town), in the suburb of Chongqing, on September 29, 1942.